Countries

Countries of world along with their systems of Governance

Presidential/Separated republics

These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Full presidential systems

Note: In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists he or she serves purely at the pleasure of the president.

Presidential systems

  •  Afghanistan
  •  Angola
  •  Argentina
  •  Benin
  •  Bolivia
  •  Brazil
  •  Burundi
  •  Chile
  •  Colombia
  •  Comoros
  •  Congo
  •  Costa Rica
  •  Cyprus
  •  Dominican Republic
  •  Ecuador
  •  El Salvador
  •  Gambia
  •  Ghana
  •  Guatemala
  •  Honduras
  •  Indonesia
  •  Kenya
  •  Liberia
  •  Malawi
  •  Maldives
  •  Mexico
  •  Myanmar
  •  Nicaragua
  •  Nigeria
  •  Palau
  •  Panama
  •  Paraguay
  •  Philippines
  •  Seychelles
  •  Sierra Leone
  •  South Sudan
  •  Sudan
  •  Turkmenistan
  •  United States
  •  Uruguay
  •  Venezuela
  •  Zambia
  •  Zimbabwe

Presidential systems with a prime minister

  •  Azerbaijan
  •  Belarus
  •  Cameroon
  •  Central African Republic
  •  Chad
  •  Guinea
  •  Equatorial Guinea
  •  Gabon
  •  Ivory Coast
  •  Kazakhstan
  •  Korea, South
  •  Mozambique
  •  Namibia
  •   Niger
  •  Peru
  •  Rwanda
  •  Tanzania
  •  Togo
  •  Uganda
  •  Uzbekistan
  •  Yemen

Semi-presidential systems

Note: In semi-presidential systems, there is usually both a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but some of the role of a head of government is exercised by the prime minister.

  •  Algeria
  •  Armenia
  •  Burkina Faso
  •  Cape Verde
  •  Congo, Democratic Republic of the
  •  Djibouti
  •  East Timor
  •  France
  •  Georgia
  •  Guinea-Bissau
  •  Guyana
  •  Haiti
  •  Madagascar
  •  Mali
  •  Mauritania
  •  Palestine
  •  Portugal
  •  Romania
  •  Russia
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe
  •  Senegal
  •  Syria
  •  Republic of China (Taiwan)
  •  Sri Lanka
  •  Tajikistan
  •  Ukraine

Parliamentary republics

Note: A parliamentary republic is a system in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The president’s degree of executive power may range from being reasonably significant (e.g. Pakistan) to little (e.g. India) or none at all (e.g. Ireland). Where the president holds little executive power, his or her function is primarily that of a symbolic figurehead.

  •  Albania
  •  Austria
  •  Bangladesh
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Croatia
  •  Czech Republic
  •  Dominica
  •  Estonia
  •  Ethiopia
  •  Fiji
  •  Finland
  •  Germany
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
  •  Iceland
  •  India
  •  Iraq
  •  Ireland
  •  Israel
  •  Italy
  •  Kosovo
  •  Kyrgyzstan
  •  Latvia
  •  Lebanon
  •  Libya
  •  Lithuania
  •  Macedonia
  •  Malta
  •  Mauritius
  •  Moldova
  •  Mongolia
  •  Montenegro
  •  Nepal
  •  Pakistan
  •  Poland
  •  Samoa
  •  Serbia
  •  Singapore
  •  Slovakia
  •  Slovenia
  •  Somalia
  •  Trinidad and Tobago
  •  Tunisia
  •  Turkey
  •  Vanuatu

Mixed republican systems

Note: A combined head of state and government is elected by the legislature, however they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during their term (although their cabinet is).

  • Botswana
  •  Marshall Islands
  •  Federated States of Micronesia
  •  Kiribati
  •  Nauru
  •  San Marino
  •  South Africa
  •  Suriname

Directorial systems

Note: The directorial system contains elements of the presidential and the parliamental system. In a directorial republic a council jointly exercises both presidential and governmental powers (the council is the collective head of state). The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to political confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.

  •   Switzerland

Constitutional monarchies

Note: These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.

Constitutional with ceremonial monarchs

Note: These are the systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence. The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government, the people or their representatives.

  •  Andorra
  •  Antigua and Barbuda
  •  Australia
  •  Bahamas
  •  Barbados
  •  Belgium
  •  Belize
  •  Cambodia
  •  Canada
  •  Denmark
  •  Grenada
  •  Jamaica
  •  Japan
  •  Lesotho
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Malaysia
  •  Netherlands
  •  New Zealand
  •  Norway
  •  Papua New Guinea
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  •  Saint Lucia
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  •  Solomon Islands
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden
  •  Thailand (military junta)
  •  Tuvalu
  •  United Kingdom

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs

Note: The prime minister is the nation’s active executive but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

  •  Bahrain
  •  Bhutan
  •  Jordan
  •  Kuwait
  •  Liechtenstein
  •  Monaco
  •  Morocco
  •  Tonga
  •  United Arab Emirates

Absolute monarchies

Note: Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch’s exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.

  •  Brunei
  •  Oman
  •  Qatar
  •  Saudi Arabia
  •  Swaziland
  •   Vatican City

Theocracies

Note: States based on a state religion where the head of state is selected by some form of religious hierarchy.

  •  Iran
  •   Vatican City

Single Party States

×States in which political power is by law concentrated within a single political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is not achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do have elected governments.
  •  China (Communist Party leads the United Front)
  •  Cuba (Communist Party) (list)
  •  Eritrea (People’s Front for Democracy and Justice)
  •  Korea, North (Workers’ Party leads the Democratic Front)
  •  Laos (People’s Revolutionary Party leads the Front for National Construction)
  •  Vietnam (Communist Party leads the Fatherland Front)
  •  Western Sahara (Polisario Front) (Politics of the Sahrawi Republic)

Military Junta States

Note: The nation’s military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.

  •  Thailand (constitutional monarchy)

Transitional

Note: States which have a system of government which is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.

  •  Burkina Faso (semi-presidential system)
  •  Egypt (semi-presidential system)
  •  Eritrea (presidential system)

Systems of Internal Governance

Federal

Note: States in which the federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments; prime examples are India, Switzerland and the United States.

  •  Argentina (23 provinces and one autonomous city (Buenos Aires)
  •  Australia (six states and two territories)
  •  Austria (nine states)
  •  Belgium (three regions and three linguistic communities)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina (two entities and one district)
  •  Brazil (26 states and the Federal District)
  •  Canada (ten provinces and three territories)
  •  Comoros (Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mohéli)
  •  Ethiopia (nine regions and two chartered cities)
  •  Germany (16 states)
  •  India (29 states and seven union territories)
  •  Iraq (18 governorates and one region (Iraqi Kurdistan)
  •  Malaysia (13 states and three federal territories)
  •  Mexico (31 states and one federal district (Mexico City)
  •  Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap)
  •  Nepal (14 zones)
  •  Nigeria (36 states and one federal territory (the Federal Capital Territory)
  •  Pakistan (4 provinces, 2 autonomous areas and 2 territories)
  •  Russia (46 oblasts, 21 republics, nine krais, four autonomous okrugs, two federal cities, one autonomous oblast)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (two states)
  •  South Sudan (10 states)
  •  Sudan (17 states)
  •  Switzerland (26 cantons)
  •  United Arab Emirates (seven emirates)
  •  United States (50 states, one incorporated territory, and one federal district (Washington, D.C.)
  •  Venezuela (23 states, one capital district and one federal dependency)

Unitary states

Regionalised unitary

Note:States in which the Central Government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities.

  •  China (22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 province-level municipalities, and 2 special administrative regions)
  •  Indonesia (34 provinces, of which 5 provinces have special status)
  •  Italy (20 regions, of which 5 are autonomous)
  •  France (27 regions, of which 6 are autonomous)
  •  Kingdom of the Netherlands (4 constituent countries)
  •  Philippines (1 autonomous region subdivided into 5 provinces and 113 other provinces and independent cities grouped into 16 other non-autonomous regions)
  •  Portugal (2 autonomous regions)
  •  Spain (17 autonomous communities [ 15 communities of common-regime, 1 community of chartered regime, 3 chartered provinces ], 2 autonomous cities)
  •  Tanzania (21 mainland regions and  Zanzibar)
  •  Ukraine (24 oblasts, 2 special-status cities, and  Crimea)
  •  United Kingdom